On the Substitution and Complementarity between Telework and Travel. A Review and Application

Thomas de Graaff
(2004) VU discussion paper

Online  pdf

This paper offers a review of the scientific evidence regarding the relation between ICT and travel in general and ICT and commuting in particular. It focuses on the issue of teleworking at home and ignores other interesting phenomena as teleworking centers. The conclusions can be summarized as follows. In the short run, ICT and commuting are to be regarded as weak substitutes, although the relation differs across population groups and parts of the day. If total travel is taken into account, then the relation becomes less clear. However, there also seems to be substitution between non-commute travel and teleworking. This indicates particular recommendations for both environmental and traffic policy. The results are further illustrated by an empirical application from the Netherlands.